Women Respond Better to Esophageal Cancer Treatment
Women with locally advanced esophageal cancer that is treated with chemotherapy and radiation therapy before surgery are more likely to have a favorable response to their cancer treatment and less likely to have recurrence than men are, according to the results of a study published in Annals of Thoracic Surgery.
What the Next Phase of the National Cancer Moonshot Initiative Means for Oncology Nurses
In one bold declaration during his final State of the Union Address in 2016, President Barack Obama raised our hopes to a singular goal—ending cancer as we know it—as he announced the National Cancer Moonshot Initiative, now called the Biden Cancer Initiative. Grounded in real research with tangible results, the intent was not even that daring: it was more realistic. Eradicating cancer, now understood to be many different aspects of the same disease, in five years was unlikely, but rather the goal was to achieve in five years what previously would take a decade.
Researchers Map More Than 760 Cancer-Dependent Genes
In an effort to build a comprehensive catalog of genetic causes of cancer, researchers from Harvard and Massachusetts Institute of Technology’s Broad Institute as well as Dana-Farber Cancer Institute have identified more than 760 genes that cells from multiple types of cancer depend on for growth and survival. The findings were published in Cell.
FDA Grants Accelerated Approval to Nivolumab for HCC
On September 22, 2017, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted accelerated approval to nivolumab for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients who have been previously treated with sorafenib.
FDA Grants Accelerated Approval to Pembrolizumab for Advanced Gastric Cancer
On September 22, 2017, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration granted accelerated approval to pembrolizumab (Ketruda®) for patients with recurrent locally advanced or metastatic, gastric or gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma whose tumors express PD-L1 as determined by an FDA-approved test. Patients must have had disease progression on or after two or more prior systemic therapies, including fluoropyrimidine- and platinum-containing chemotherapy and, if appropriate, HER2/neu-targeted therapy.
Dendritic Cell Vaccine Uses Immune System to Fight NSCLC
A new study testing a dendritic cell vaccine for the first time in humans to treat non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has shown that it successfully amplifies the immune system to boost the effectiveness of anti-PD-1 immunotherapies against the cancer. The findings were published in Clinical Cancer Research.
Oncology Nurses Drive Change In Cancer Care With Clinical Trials
Clinical trials are responsible for discovering new treatments for cancer as well as the continued evolution of standards of care in clinical practice. Nationally, less than 5% of all eligible adult patients with cancer enroll in clinical trials. Additionally, it takes a drug an average of six to eight years from when it is first introduced in trials to become fully available to all patients who could benefit from it.
The Difference Between Quality Improvement, Evidence-Based Practice, and Research
As healthcare institutions become ever more complex and our focus on patient experience expands, nurses are leading and participating in research studies, evidence-based practice (EBP) projects, and quality improvement (QI) initiatives with a goal of improving patient outcomes. Research, EBP, and QI have subtle differences and frequent overlap, which can make it a challenge for nurses to identify the best option to investigating a clinical problem.
Patient-Provider Communication on Immunotherapy Can Be Improved
Guidelines regarding healthcare provider communication about immunotherapy do not currently exist. Researchers sought to determine patient and provider preferences for this type of information and to identify barriers to communication about immunotherapy. The study’s findings were presented at the 2017 ASCO Annual Meeting.
FDA Funds Research Into Health Disparities
Disparities continue to create a wide gap in health in the United States. Many factors can contribute to a person’s health, and we still have much to learn about the issue. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has announced it will be dedicating research funding to find out more about how lifestyle impacts health.
Nurse Becomes Acting Surgeon General; Representative Roybal-Allard Calls for Funding Scientific Research; Gottlieb Nomination for FDA Commissioner Sent to Senate
After former President Obama’s surgeon general was asked to resign by the Trump administration, the White House appointed Rear Admiral Sylvia Trent-Adams, PhD, RN, FAAN, as acting surgeon general.
Annual Cancer Report Identifies Significant Increases in Survival
As part of its Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer for 1975-2014, a group of organizations and agencies identified significant increases in cancer survival in the United States, with survival rates more than doubling for eight cancers.
FDA Announces Oncology Center of Excellence
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently announced, through the Office of Health and Constituent Affairs, that it has established the Oncology Center of Excellence (OCE). Longtime FDA official, Richard Pazdur, MD, has been named to lead the division as its first director. The OCE will make oncology “the first disease area to have a coordinated clinical review of drugs, biologics and devices across the agency’s three medical product centers,” according to the FDA.
Increasing Adult BMI May Raise Risk of Fatal Prostate Cancer
Men whose body mass index (BMI) increases to obesity during adulthood may have a higher risk of fatal prostate cancer, according to the results of a study published in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.
CD36 Protein and Dietary Fat May Combine to Increase Cancer Metastasis
New research published in Nature may have identified one way cancer cells metastasize to spread and resist treatment. The study showed how a cancer protein interacts with dietary fat to facilitate metastasis and may pave the way for new cancer therapies.
The Evolving Role of Oncology Nurse Navigators
Care coordination is an integral component of every oncology nurse’s job, but the specific role of oncology nurse navigator (ONN) was developed to help address certain barriers to care, including difficulty navigating the healthcare system, poor communication, and lack of resources.
Cancer Cells May Use Neutrophil Traps to Metastasize
Previous research has linked neutrophils to cancer metastasis, but a new study published in Science Translational Medicine may have uncovered more information about why this happens.
The study’s researchers found that neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), which the immune system normally uses to kill harmful pathogens, may help metastatic cancer cells form new tumors in other parts of the body.
New Genetic Test May Predict High-Risk Cervical Cancer
A new genetic test that analyzes multiple sources of DNA may be able to detect high-risk cervical cancer more accurately than other available tests: it showed 90.9% sensitivity in identifying cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 lesions. The findings from the proof-of-concept study were reported in Cancer Prevention Research.
Palliative Care, Opioids, and Biomarkers Lead NIH's 2016 Research Year in Review
Mammography Cutoffs Should Be Based on Individual Health History
Researchers conducting the largest study to date on screening mammography outcomes have found no evidence to support stopping mammography screenings at a certain age. The findings were presented at the 2016 Radiological Society of North America annual meeting.
Statin Use May Improve Overall Survival From Multiple Myeloma
A new study has found that use of statin medications in patients with multiple myeloma was associated with a decreased risk of all-cause and cancer-specific mortality. The findings were published in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.
Combination Therapy Shows Promise for Chronic Myeloid Leukemia
According to the results of a new study published in Science Translational Medicine, a combination regimen consisting of a BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitor and a B-cell lymphoma 2 inhibitor may one day result in a cure for chronic myeloid leukemia.