The Case of the PARP Inhibitor Adherence Assistance
Mei is a 67-year-old patient who recently underwent an exploratory laparotomy, total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, omentectomy, and tumor debulking. Her surgical specimens were sent for pathology review and germline biomarker testing. Based on the findings, Mei was diagnosed with stage IIIC, high-grade serous epithelial ovarian cancer with a BRCA1 pathogenic germline variant.
PARP Inhibitors and Ovarian Cancer
Before poly (adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors were approved for ovarian cancer, traditional treatment consisted of surgical cytoreduction and platinum-based chemotherapy with a taxane, with or without bevacizumab, depending on stage and type. With the surgery-chemotherapy combination, 70%–75% of patients had recurrence and overall five-year survival rates were 29%, indicating a need for additional therapies.
A Primer on Urothelial Cancer
The urinary system, including the bladder, ureters, urethra, and renal pelvis, is lined with urothelial tissue. Urothelial carcinoma is the predominant histologic type of cancer in that system, and 90% of tumors are located in the bladder. With more than 81,400 new cases and nearly 18,000 deaths estimated for 2020, bladder cancer is the fifth most prevalent type of cancer in the United States.
Oral Adherence With Nerlynx® (Neratinib) Tablets: Patient Case
AS is a 58-year-old woman who was diagnosed at age 55 with a right infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the breast, identified as grade III, ER and PR positive, and HER2 positive. She had bilateral mastectomy, and tumor size was noted to be 2.8 cm. She had a positive sentinel lymph node. She was staged at IIB (pT2, pN1, M0). Her left breast was noted to have usual ductal epithelial hyperplasia and a 1.2 cm fibroadenoma. AS’s genetic testing revealed a BRCA1 mutation (BRCA1 c.3748G>T [p.Glu1250*]), which may confer an increased risk for breast cancer in the range of 46%–87%, and 39%–63% risk for ovarian cancer by age 70. As her patient history shows, she has some risk factors for nonadherence, including no support at home and some financial issues. Throughout her care, the team worked to communicate and prepare AS to help ensure adherence as much as possible.
Oral Adherence With Nerlynx® (Neratinib) Tablets: Introduction
The cancer treatment landscape has shifted with the emergence of new, targeted therapies. Development and use of oral oncolytics, targeted cancer therapies that can be taken by patients orally in their own homes, has increased in recent years. This increase is due in part to research in extra- and intracellular signaling pathways. By interfering with or blocking these signals, targeted drugs have become standard agents in cancer therapy. Oral oncolytics currently account for about 25% of the oncology pipeline of drugs in clinical development, and experts project that oral oncoloytic use will continue to rise.
First-Line Osimertinib for Metastatic Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
Lung cancer is the second most common cancer in both men and women (after skin cancer) and is the leading cause of cancer death among both men and women. Histology has become an important determinant in choosing therapy for various types of cancer, including non-small cell lung cancer. Currently, biomarker testing is the standard of care in lung cancer; with biomarker testing, patients likely to respond to targeted therapy can be identified. As the number of targeted agents continues to increase, so does the demand for continued biomarker testing and adequate tumor tissue samples.
Best Practices for IM Injection of Fulvestrant
Large-volume (≥ 3 ml) intramuscular (IM) injections may not be administered often, and oncology nurses can be unfamiliar with best practices. A study found that only 32% of gluteal injections were administered into the desired IM target. This could lead to the drug being administered subcutaneously or near major nerves and blood vessels, potentially decreasing the treatment’s efficacy.