Nurses Are Key to Patients Navigating Genitourinary Cancers
Nurses must serve as care coordinators for patients with genitourinary cancers because of the many tests, procedures, and self-care instructions they require, Clara Beaver, MSN, RN, AOCNS®, ACNS-BC®, and Joan Livingstone, BScN, RN, OCN®, both of Karmanos Cancer Institute at Wayne State University in Detroit, MI, said during a session at a ONS BridgeTM virtual conference on September 9, 2021. They emphasized the complexity of genitourinary cancers throughout diagnosis, treatment, and survivorship. Key nursing responsibilities include communicating with the care team, referring patients to other members of the interprofessional team, and advocating for patients’ needs.
Nursing Considerations for Prostate Cancer Survivorship Care
Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among those assigned male at birth, with one in eight diagnosed during their lifetime. But with five-year survival rates of 90%, it’s also one of the most successful cancers to treat, making survivorship care even more important.
FDA Approves Second PSMA-Targeted PET Imaging Drug for Prostate Cancer
On May 27, 2021, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved piflufolastat F 18 (Pylarify®), a drug for positron-emission tomography (PET) imaging of prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-positive lesions in patients with prostate cancer.
Genomics Test Guides Treatment Decisions for Prostate Cancer
The Decipher genomics test, which measures activity of 22 genes among seven known cancer pathways, independently estimates patients’ risk of prostate cancer metastasis, death, and overall survival and helps identify patients most likely to benefit from hormone therapy, researchers reported in study findings published in JAMA Oncology.
Adding MRI to PSA Detects More Prostate Cancers Than PSA Alone
Combining magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing allows clinicians to detect twice as many clinically significant prostate cancers than PSA testing alone, according to study results published in JAMA Oncology.
FDA Approves Relugolix for Advanced Prostate Cancer
On December 18, 2020, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the first oral gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor antagonist, relugolix, (Orgovyx™) for adult patients with advanced prostate cancer.
CDC’s Virtual Simulation Guides Patients With Prostate Cancer From Screening to Treatment
Nurses can now navigate patients with prostate cancer to a virtual simulation for guidance on all aspects of the disease, from screening to treatment. Plus, providers can interact with Nathan, the simulation avatar, in a clinical encounter to help improve their consultation skills when discussing screening and treatment decisions with men. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) released this resource after launching its popular simulation for patients with breast cancer.
FDA Approves Olaparib for HRR Gene-Mutated, Metastatic, Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer
On May 19, 2020, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved olaparib (Lynparza®) for adult patients with deleterious or suspected deleterious germline or somatic homologous recombination repair (HRR) gene-mutated, metastatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC), who have progressed following prior treatment with enzalutamide or abiraterone.
FDA Grants Accelerated Approval to Rucaparib for BRCA-Mutated, Metastatic, Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer
On May 15, 2020, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted accelerated approval to rucaparib (Rubraca®) for patients with deleterious BRCA mutation (germline or somatic)-associated, metastatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) who had been treated with androgen receptor-directed therapy and taxane-based chemotherapy.
Prostate Cancer Disparities Disappear With Equal Access to Care
Typically, African American men have worse outcomes from prostate cancer than their white counterparts. But according to the results of a new study in patients in the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) health system where all patients have equal access to care, no disparities exist between the two groups—in fact, the African American men in the VA system had better outcomes than non-Hispanic whites. The findings were reported in Cancer.
Adding MRI to Prostate Cancer Testing Improves Accuracy, NIH Study Says
Combining a traditional 12-point biopsy with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) improves the accuracy of prostate cancer diagnosis, according to findings from a new National Institutes of Health (NIH) study published in the New England Journal of Medicine.
Prostate Cancer Prevention, Screening, Treatment, and Survivorship Recommendations
One in nine men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer, the second leading cause of death in men in the United States. Survival varies greatly depending on the disease’s severity and extent at diagnosis: five-year survival rates are near 100% for local or regional disease, but they drop to 30% for metastatic prostate cancer.
FDA Approves Enzalutamide for Metastatic Castration-Sensitive Prostate Cancer
On December 16, 2019, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved enzalutamide (Xtandi®) for patients with metastatic castration-sensitive prostate cancer.
FDA Approves Apalutamide for Metastatic Castration-Sensitive Prostate Cancer
On September 17, 2019, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved apalutamide (ErleadaTM) for patients with metastatic castration-sensitive prostate cancer. Apalutamide was initially approved in 2018 for patients with non-metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer.
Guidelines Insufficient for Prostate Cancer Germline Genetic Testing
According to researchers, only 43.8% of positive genetic variants detected in men with prostate cancer had corresponding recommendations for germline testing in National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines. The findings were published in JAMA Oncology.
Shorter EBRT for Early Prostate Cancer Has Similar Outcomes
Patients receiving hypofractionated external-beam radiation therapy (EBRT) for early-stage prostate cancer experienced similar outcomes and toxicities as those receiving standard radiation at lower doses over a longer period of time, the American Society for Radiation Oncology, American Society of Clinical Oncology, and American Urological Association say in a new clinical guideline.
Neuroendocrine Prostate Cancer Subtype Is Aggressive and More Common Than Expected
Nearly 20% of men with metastatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer had tumors that developed into the treatment-emergent small-cell neuroendocrine (t-SCNC) subtype, which is associated with shorter survival than other subtypes, according to findings from a study published in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.
NIH Launches Study Focused on Prostate Cancer Rates in African American Men
To better understand environmental and genetic impacts associated with prostate cancer in African American men, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) began a new study, Research on Prostate Cancer in Men of African Ancestry: Defining the Roles of Genetics, Tumor Markers, and Social Stress (RESPOND). The research program has received more than $26 million in funding and seeks to understand why African American men have disproportionally higher rates of aggressive prostate cancer than any other racial or ethnic population.
FDA Approves First Metastasis-Free Endpoint Treatment for Prostate Cancer
Breakthroughs and new treatments are moving faster than ever. Getting treatments approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is crucial whenever new options are making way to patients with cancer. In February 2018, the FDA approved apalutamide for the treatment of nonmetastatic prostate cancer that continues to grow despite treatment with hormone therapy, the first FDA-approved treatment for nonmetastatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer.
FDA Approves Abiraterone Acetate With Prednisone for High-Risk Metastatic CSPC
On February 7, 2018, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved abiraterone acetate tablets in combination with prednisone for metastatic high-risk castration-sensitive prostate cancer (CSPC).
Height and Weight May Be Linked to Aggressive Prostate Cancer
Taller men and those with a higher body mass index (BMI) may be at increased risk for high-grade prostate cancer and disease-related mortality, according to the results of a study published in BMC Medicine.
New Blood Test Paves Way for Targeted Treatment for Prostate Cancer
A new three-in-one blood test that analyzes cancer DNA in the bloodstream before and during treatment will allow providers to understand and track which patients are likely to benefit from treatment with olaparib, a PARP inhibitor. Additionally, researchers found which genetic mutations prostate cancers use to resist treatment with olaparib. The study was published in Cancer Discovery.
Improving Cancer Care Through Patient-Reported Outcomes
Technology can—at times—seem miraculous, especially as it evolves in healthcare settings. Simple technologic tools have been able to lower costs, increase efficiency, minimize delays in treatment times, and even provide new, lifesaving procedures for cancer treatment.
Less Sleep May Increase Risk of Death From Prostate Cancer
Men younger than 65 years who sleep less than six hours per night have an increased risk of death from prostate cancer, according to the results of a study presented at the American Association for Cancer Research 2017 annual meeting.
Revised USPSTF Draft Guidelines Recommend Individual Prostate Cancer Screening Decisions
The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) has issued new draft revisions for prostate cancer screening guidelines. In the draft, the USPSTF has changed its previous stance on prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening tests for men aged 55–69. The drafted guidelines now recommend PSA screening tests for men aged 55–69 based on individual assessment. The USPSTF has upgraded its recommendation from D to C, encouraging physicians to discuss with their patients whether PSA testing is right for them. The USPSTF still recommends against PSA screening tests in patients aged 70 or older.