The Answer

The answer is D. Lactate dehydrogenase Lactate hydrogenase is a group of enzymes involved in the production of energy in cells. It can be found in the blood and body tissues. Increases in lactate dehydrogenase can indicate tissue damage along with certain types of cancers including germ cell tumors, lymphoma, leukemia, melanoma, and neuroblastoma.

Programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) is an important tumor marker in non-small cell lung cancer and helps determine which therapy is appropriate. HE4 is a protein found on cells which line the lungs and reproductive organs. It is a tumor marker in ovarian cancer and can help with treatment planning and monitoring for recurrence. Cytokeratin fragment 21-1 may be found in higher than normal amounts in patients with epithelial cell cancers such as lung, breast, colorectal, bladder, and H&N cancer. This tumor marker is found in the blood and can be used to monitor for recurrence.