FDA Approves Apalutamide for Metastatic Castration-Sensitive Prostate Cancer
On September 17, 2019, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved apalutamide (ErleadaTM) for patients with metastatic castration-sensitive prostate cancer. Apalutamide was initially approved in 2018 for patients with non-metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer.
Vaccine May Boost CAR T-Cell Activity in Solid Tumors
Researchers are testing a new approach using an amphiphilic cancer vaccine to deliver CAR T-cell therapy to solid tumors, and the results of preclinical studies are promising, according to findings published in the journal Science.
FDA Approves Combination Pembrolizumab Plus Lenvatinib
On September 17, 2019, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted accelerated approval to the combination of pembrolizumab (Keytruda®) plus lenvatinib (Lenvima®) for the treatment of patients with advanced endometrial carcinoma that is not microsatellite instability high (MSI-H) or mismatch repair deficient (dMMR) and who have disease progression following prior systemic therapy but are not candidates for curative surgery or radiation.
Oncology Formulations Not Affected by Bevacizumab Recall
On September 3, 2019, AmEx Pharmacy issued a voluntary recall of two dosages of injectable bevacizumab. Although injectable bevacizumab is used in cancer treatment, the formulations affected by the recall are for much smaller dosages that are used to treat eye diseases (i.e., macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy).
Oncology Drug Reference Sheet: Venetoclax
Venetoclax (Venclexta®) was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration on May 15, 2019, for the treatment of adult patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) or small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL) as a single agent or in combination therapy. Previously, it had been approved in late 2018 for use in combination therapy for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in older adults or those with significant comorbidities.
FDA Approves Fedratinib for Myelofibrosis
On August 16, 2019, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved fedratinib (Inrebic®) for adults with intermediate-2 or high-risk primary or secondary (post-polycythemia vera or post-essential thrombocythemia) myelofibrosis.
FDA Approves Entrectinib for NTRK Solid Tumors and ROS-1 NSCLC
On August 15, 2019, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted accelerated approval to entrectinib (RozlytrekTM) for adults and pediatric patients 12 years of age and older with solid tumors that have a neurotrophic tyrosine receptor kinase (NTRK) gene fusion without a known acquired resistance mutation, are metastatic or where surgical resection is likely to result in severe morbidity, and have progressed following treatment or have no satisfactory standard therapy.
CAR T Cells Show Promise in Solid Tumors
Two recent studies demonstrated CAR T-cell therapy activity in certain types of solid tumors, according to results presented at the American Society of Clinical Oncology annual meeting. The CAR T cells used new targets outside of the CD19 targets used for the therapy’s current approvals in leukemia and lymphoma.
Geriatric Oncology Ambulatory Care Clinics Address Older Patients’ Needs
Traditionally defined as patients aged 65 and older, older adults make up the majority of patients with cancer. Ambulatory care clinics with a specialized focus on older patients with cancer can provide age-specific care and an interprofessional team of providers well versed in cancer, aging, and geriatric assessment. Through geriatric oncology ambulatory care clinics, providers can work together to identify and coordinate plans to individualize treatment and supportive care for older patients.
The Case of the Pregnancy Predicament
A 33-year-old woman presents to the emergency department with fever, weight loss, and dyspnea. She is five months pregnant. A computed tomography (CT) chest scan without contrast shows a large mediastinal mass. Biopsy demonstrates Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), but magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of her abdomen and pelvis without contrast is negative for lymphadenopathy. Her echocardiogram and pulmonary function testing are normal.
FDA Approves Pembrolizumab for Advanced Esophageal Squamous Cell Cancer
On July 30, 2019, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved pembrolizumab (Keytruda®) for patients with recurrent, locally advanced or metastatic, squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus (ESCC) whose tumors express PD-L1 (combined positive score [CPS] ≥10), as determined by an FDA-approved test, with disease progression after one or more prior lines of systemic therapy.
Oncology Drug Reference Sheet: Atezolizumab’s Indications for Breast and Lung Cancer
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) first approved atezolizumab (Tecentriq®) in 2016, but it received additional approvals when used in combination treatments for locally advanced or metastatic triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC) in March 2019.
Which Tumor Marker Can Be Used to Assess Stage, Prognosis, Response to Treatment?
Which tumor marker can be used to assess stage, prognosis, response to treatment in germ cell tumors, lymphoma, melanoma, acute leukemia, and neuroblastoma?
A. Programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1)
C. Cytokeratin fragment 21-1
D. Lactate dehydrogenase
Fresenius Kabi Issues Voluntary Nationwide Recall of Two Lots of Fluorouracil Injection Because of the Potential for Glass Particulate
Fresenius Kabi USA, LLC, is voluntarily recalling two lots of fluorouracil injection, USP 5 g/100 mL (50 mg/mL), 100 mL fill in 100 mL vials, to the user level because of the potential for glass particulate. The affected lots, distributed between December 6, 2018, and February 20, 2019, are listed below:
Collaboration Is Key to CAR T-Cell Therapy Management Across Settings
As of February 2019, only 160 institutions across the United States are certified to administer CAR T-cell therapy, meaning many eligible patients may need to be referred to a treatment center outside of the local ambulatory or community cancer center where they had previously received treatment. The transition from primary oncologist to certified center and back again requires careful coordination to ensure important steps and information aren’t lost.
FDA Grants Accelerated Approval to Selinexor for Multiple Myeloma
On July 3, 2019, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted accelerated approval to selinexor (XpvioTM) in combination with dexamethasone for adult patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM) who have received at least four prior therapies and whose disease is refractory to at least two proteasome inhibitors, at least two immunomodulatory agents, and an anti-CD38 monoclonal antibody.
Test Predicts Which Women Will Benefit From Chemo for Breast Cancer
A prediction test accurately identifies which women with estrogen receptor (ER)-positive, HER2-negative breast cancer will benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy, according to the results of a study published in Breast Cancer Research and Treatment.
FDA Approves Daratumumab for Multiple Myeloma Ineligible for Autologous Stem Cell Transplant
On June 27, 2019, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved daratumumab (Darzalex®) in combination with lenalidomide and dexamethasone for patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma who are ineligible for autologous stem cell transplant.
New CAR T-Cell Targets Show Safe Results in Early Clinical Trials
Findings from two phase I clinical trials presented at the American Association for Cancer Research 2019 annual meeting indicate that targeting CAR T cells against mesothelin for advanced solid tumors and HER2 for advanced sarcoma is safe and shows clinical antitumor activity.
FDA’s Latest Approved Drugs and Indications Include Two Oral Agents
Because two oral therapies received new indications in the U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA’s) most recent round of approvals, oncology nurses will want to focus on ways to manage patients in the home. Assessing oral adherence, encouraging patients to report adverse events, and ensuring their understanding of complex dosing regimens are critical components of nursing care. ONS offers an oral adherence toolkit and oral chemotherapy patient education sheets to help with patient management.
Personalized Combination Therapies Yield Better Cancer Outcomes
In a perpetual search to refine research and scientific advancements in the pursuit of fighting cancer, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) is investing in research that will help practitioners further understand how treatments and combinations of treatments can benefit patients. Through a focus on precision oncology, researchers are examining which combinations of therapies would work best for each individual patient based on a number of factors, including genetics and genomics.
Oncology Drug Reference Sheet: Combination Trastuzumab and Hyaluronidase-Oysk
A new product that combines trastuzumab and hyaluronidase (Herceptin Hylecta™) received U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval in February 2019 for the treatment of HER2-overexpressing breast cancer. The approval was based on the results of two randomized trials: HannaH and SafeHER.
FDA Approves Pembrolizumab for Metastatic Small Cell Lung Cancer
On June 17, 2019, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted accelerated approval to pembrolizumab (Keytruda®) for patients with metastatic small cell lung cancer with disease progression on or after platinum-based chemotherapy and at least one other prior line of therapy.
FDA Approves Pembrolizumab for First-Line Treatment of HNSCC
On June 10, 2019, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved pembrolizumab (Keytruda®) for the first-line treatment of patients with metastatic or unresectable recurrent head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC).
FDA Approves Polatuzumab Vedotin-piiq for Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma
On June 10, 2019, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted accelerated approval to polatuzumab vedotin-piiq (PolivyTM), a CD79b-directed antibody-drug conjugate indicated in combination with bendamustine and a rituximab product for adult patients with relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified, after at least two prior therapies.
Nurses Are Crucial to Developing Tools, Best Practices for Novel Therapies
Advanced practice RNs (APRNs), especially those with Doctorate of Nursing Practice degrees, in clinics across the country must not only focus on managing care for patients on novel therapies like immunotherapy but must also look at toxicities and adverse events from a population perspective. APRNs should look across all patients and disease types receiving the same novel treatments and recognize toxicity patterns to determine best practices for patient management.
Novel Therapies: How CAR T Cells and Biosimilars Are Changing Cancer Care
Clinical practice is in a constant state of evolution as new guidelines are released, drugs are approved for new indications, and technology reshapes the way care is delivered. Patients are also arming themselves with a more-advanced-than-ever knowledge and understanding of health care, and providers may be fielding new questions from patients and caregivers about novel treatments such as chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy and biosimilars.
FDA Updates REMS and Black Box Warnings for Blinatumomab
In May 2019, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) added new clarifications to its risk evaluation and mitigation strategy and black box warnings for blinatumomab (Blincyto®). Blinatumomab is a bispecific, CD19-directed CD3 T-cell engager indicated for the treatment of adults and children with (a) B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in first or second complete remission with minimal residual disease greater than or equal to 0.1% or (b) relapsed or refractory B-cell precursor ALL.
FDA Approves Lenalidomide for Follicular and Marginal Zone Lymphoma
On May 28, 2019, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved lenalidomide (Revlimid®) in combination with a rituximab product for previously treated follicular lymphoma and previously treated marginal zone lymphoma.
FDA Approves Alpelisib for Metastatic Breast Cancer
On May 24, 2019, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved alpelisib (Piqray®) in combination with fulvestrant for postmenopausal women, and men, with hormone receptor (HR)-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative, PIK3CA-mutated, advanced or metastatic breast cancer as detected by an FDA-approved test following progression on or after an endocrine-based regimen.
FDA Approves Ruxolitinib for Acute Graft-Versus-Host Disease
On May 24, 2019, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved ruxolitinib (Jakafi®) for steroid-refractory acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in adult and pediatric patients 12 years and older.
Oncology Drug Reference Sheet: Talazoparib
Initially approved in 2018, talazoparib (Talzenna®) capsules are indicated for the treatment of adult patients with deleterious or suspected deleterious germline breast cancer susceptibility gene HER2-negative locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer.
FDA Approves Avelumab Plus Axitinib for Renal Cell Carcinoma
On May 14, 2019, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved avelumab (Bavencio®) in combination with axitinib for first-line treatment of patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma.
FDA Approves Ado-Trastuzumab Emtansine for Early Breast Cancer
On May 3, 2019, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved ado-trastuzumab emtansine (Kakcyla®) for the adjuvant treatment of patients with HER2-positive early breast cancer (EBC) who have residual invasive disease after neoadjuvant taxane and trastuzumab-based treatment.
FDA Approves Ivosidenib as First-Line Treatment for AML With IDH1 Mutation
On May 2, 2019, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved ivosidenib (Tibsovo®) for newly-diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with a susceptible IDH1 mutation, as detected by an FDA-approved test, in patients who are at least 75 years old or who have comorbidities that preclude the use of intensive induction chemotherapy.
Stay Up to Date on Clinical Treatments for Metastatic CRC
Metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) remains a significant health problem as the second leading cause of cancer death in the United States and the fourth most frequently diagnosed cancer. Despite improvements in some age groups, its incidence has actually been increasing in patients younger than 50 years. The cause of this trend is currently unknown.
Oncology Drug Reference Sheet: Cabozantinib
Cabozantinib (Cabometyx®) received an additional U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved indication in January 2019 for use in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who have already been treated with sorafenib. It received prior approval for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma in 2017. The research leading to the approval in the HCC setting showed improved overall survival, progression-free survival, and overall response in the cabozantinib treatment arm.
Which Ambulatory Infusion Pump Is Best for 5-FU?
Because of its long infusion time over 46–48 hours, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) is usually administered with an ambulatory infusion pump in the outpatient setting. However, two types of pumps exist. On one side of the spectrum is the elastomeric pump: small, compact, but gets the job done. On the other is the electronic pump: bigger, flashy, with lots of bells and whistles (literally). Here are the advantages and disadvantages of each.
Nurses Must Recognize, Manage Toxicities of CAR T-Cell Therapy
Chimeric antigen receptor T-cell (CAR T-cell) therapy is an exciting but complex novel form of immunotherapy with multiple potential toxicities that nurses must be prepared to recognize and manage, Misty Lamprecht, MS, APRN-CNS, AOCN®, BMTCN®, of the Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center – James in Columbus said during a session on Saturday, April 13, 2019, at the ONS 44th Annual Congress in Anaheim, CA. Lamprecht’s copresenter was Yi Lin, MD, PhD, of the Mayo Clinic Cancer Center in Rochester, MN.
Oncology Drug Reference Sheet: Glasdegib
In November 2018, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved glasdegib (Daurismo™) for use in combination with low-dose cytarabine for treatment of patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia who are not eligible for intensive chemotherapy. Data from clinical trials indicated that the regimen is safe for older adults and those with significant comorbidities, such as cardiac disease, poor performance status, or elevated serum creatinine.
FDA Approves Atezolizumab for Extensive-Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer
On March 18, 2019, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved atezolizumab in combination with carboplatin and etoposide, for the first-line treatment of adult patients with extensive-stage small cell lung cancer.
Biosimilars, Oral Agents, and Drugs Targeting Genetic Mutations Are Creating a Paradigm Shift in Cancer Treatment
New treatment options continue to emerge for diseases that until recently had limited, if any, treatment choices. Nurses are seeing more changes in the way treatment regimens come together, biosimilars are presenting viable options for patients, and genetic mutations, as opposed to disease sites, are at the forefront of drug development.
FDA Approves Atezolizumab for PD-L1 Positive Unresectable Locally Advanced or Metastatic Triple-Negative Breast Cancer
On March 8, 2019, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted accelerated approval to atezolizumab in combination with paclitaxel protein-bound for adult patients with unresectable locally advanced or metastatic triple-negative breast cancer whose tumors express PD-L1 (PD-L1 stained tumor-infiltrating immune cells [IC] of any intensity covering ≥ 1% of the tumor area), as determined by an FDA-approved test.
Testing in the Era of Precision Oncology
Every cancer diagnosis is as individualized and unique as the person receiving it. From family history to societal and economic background to a patient’s genetic make-up and composition, cancer affects each person with cancer differently. Initiatives like precision medicine are based in data that suggest that a personalized disease should have its own personalized treatment. As a subset of precision medicine, precision oncology assesses a patient’s unique genetic profile to help align targeted therapies to hit the right cancer subtypes.
FDA Approves Trastuzumab and Hyaluronidase-oysk Injection for Subcutaneous Use
On February 28, 2019, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved a trastuzumab and hyaluronidase-oysk injection, for subcutaneous use (Herceptin Hylecta). The drug is a combination of trastuzumab, a HER2/neu receptor antagonist, and hyaluronidase, an endoglycosidase, for the treatment of HER2‑overexpressing breast cancer.
FDA Approves Trifluridine and Tipiracil Tablet for Recurrent Metastatic Gastric or GEJ Adenocarcinoma
On February 22, 2019, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved trifluridine/tipiracil tablets (Lonsurf)—a fixed combination of trifluridine, a nucleoside metabolic inhibitor, and tipiracil, a thymidine phosphorylase inhibitor—for adult patients with metastatic gastric or gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) adenocarcinoma previously treated with at least two prior lines of chemotherapy that included a fluoropyrimidine, a platinum, either a taxane or irinotecan, and if appropriate, HER2/neu-targeted therapy.